The Selma to Montgomery march was part of a series of civil rights protests that occurred in in Alabama, a Southern state with deeply entrenched racist policies. In March of that year, in an effort to register black voters in the South, protesters marching the mile route from Selma to the state capital of Montgomery were confronted with deadly violence from local authorities and white vigilante groups.
As the world watched, the protesters—under the protection of federalized National Guard troops—finally achieved their goal, walking around the clock for three days to reach Montgomery, Alabama.
The historic march, and Martin Luther King, Jr. But the Civil Rights Movement was not easily deterred. In earlyMartin Luther King, Jr. King had won the Nobel Peace Prize inand his profile would help draw international attention to the events that followed. Alabama Governor George Wallace was a notorious opponent of desegregation, and the local county sheriff in Dallas County had led a steadfast opposition to black voter registration drives. On February 18, white segregationists attacked a group of peaceful demonstrators in the town of Marion, Alabama.
In the ensuing chaos, an Alabama state trooper fatally shot Jimmie Lee Jackson, a young African American demonstrator. The brutal scene was captured on television, enraging many Americans and drawing civil rights and religious leaders of all faiths to Selma in protest. Hundreds of ministers, priests, rabbis and social activists soon headed to Selma to join the voting rights march.
On March 9, King led more than 2, marchers, black and white, across the Edmund Pettus Bridge but found Highway 80 blocked again by state troopers. King paused the marchers and led them in prayer, whereupon the troopers stepped aside. King then turned the protesters around, believing that the troopers were trying to create an opportunity that would allow them to enforce a federal injunction prohibiting the march.
This decision led to criticism from some marchers, who called King cowardly. That night, a group of segregationists attacked another protester; the young white minister James Reeb, beating him to death. Alabama state officials led by Wallace tried to prevent the march from going forward, but a U.
Six days later, on March 15, President Lyndon B. Johnson went on national television to pledge his support to things and their aspects Selma protesters and to call for the passage of a new voting rights bill that he was introducing in Congress. There is no Southern problem.Learn more about marches for freedom during the civil rights movement with the worksheet The Selma to Montgomery March.
Students will read about this important march and observe the map of the walk in the text. Then they will follow the instructions to add symbols to represent important events that occurred during the five-day march.
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Related learning resources. Students learn what text features are, along with examples, then practice identifying and using them to enhance their understanding of nonfiction texts as they learn about Martin Luther King, Jr. The March on Washington.
Lesson plan. Your students may know about Rosa Parks, but do they know about the Montgomery Bus Boycott that her famous action inspired? Who Was Amelia Boynton Robinson? A key activist in the movement, Amelia played a critical role in organizing the Selma to Montgomery march. The Montgomery Bus Boycott. In this worksheet, children read the story of Parks' act of passive resistance, then follow a series of thoughtful prompts to reflect on why the boycott was successful, as well as why it inspired the support.
Make a Family Encyclopedia!Photo James Karales. Why did thousands march over 50 miles through cold, Alabama rain in ? In this lesson, students learn about the Selma-to-Montgomery voting rights march. After analyzing photojournalist James Karales's iconic photograph of the march, reading background material on it, and considering what the marchers might have thought and felt, students write and illustrate a postcard describing this civil rights event from a marcher's viewpoint.
Evaluate the role of photojournalists and media organizations in the passage of the Voting Rights Act of Analyze the ways in which art and politics continue to interact around civil rights in U. For photographer James Karales, being "a photojournalist in the 60's was heaven, utopia. His photograph, Selma-to-Montgomery March for Voting Rights in March,was part of Look's award-winning photo essay, "Turning Point for the Church," which documented the role of churches in the civil rights movement.
Art critics called it a pictorial anthem with "the weight of history and the grace of art. This Karales photograph of marchers reminded historian Taylor Branch of the Israelites marching out of the Red Sea as they fled Egyptian slavery. James Karales was born in to Greek immigrants in Canton, Ohio. After earning a B. Eugene Smith. Under Smith's tutelage, Karales learned to tell stories in powerful documentary photographs.
Photographs such as his, as well as television news reports, brought the nation face to face with contemporary violence and racism. In the Selma-to-Montgomery photograph, Karales knew how to angle his camera in order to emphasize the importance of the event. The approaching line of dark figures, seen from below, is dramatically silhouetted against a light background. Contrasting dark clouds that move in from the opposite direction loom above them and suggest a possible threat.
The Selma to Montgomery March
Not only did Karales snap his camera's shutter at just the right moment to catch the fleeting light, but he also manipulated the viewpoint so that only the marchers, flags, clouds, and a few weeds are visible. Nearby buildings, fences, traffic, cameramen, and national guardsmen aren't visible to the viewer and thus don't compete with the heroic isolation of his main subject.
The purpose was to peacefully progress from Selma to the capital in order to gain national awareness for voting rights. The march began quietly, but several blocks from where they started, the marchers were met with violence by state and local police on the Edmund Pettus Bridge.
They were beat, trampled, and bloodied in an event that would become known as " Bloody Sunday. After reorganization and careful negotiations, the march started again on March 21,and reached Montgomery successfully five days later. This time marchers were prepared, and protected by the U.
Army and Alabama National Guard. These armed guards lined parts of the road to protect the marchers. The national media covered this soon-to-be historic event documenting it-particularly through photographs.
When they left Selma, the marchers numbered approximately 3, but on their arrival in the capital the total was nearly 25, The television coverage of the violence shocked the nation.
It provoked an outpouring of support for the voting rights movement from white religious and labor leaders as well as ordinary citizens. President Lyndon Johnson and key members of Congress who had been dubious about the need for a bill now committed themselves to its passage. Johnson delivered one of the most important speeches on his presidency, " We Shall Overcome ", in support of the act on March The bill that Dr.
Use the worksheet questions and the students' answers as a framework for a class discussion about the photograph.SCLC had chosen to focus its efforts in Selma because they anticipated that the notorious brutality of local law enforcement under Sheriff Jim Clark would attract national attention and pressure President Lyndon B. Johnson and Congress to enact new national voting rights legislation.
The campaign in Selma and nearby Marion, Alabama, progressed with mass arrests but little violence for the first month. That changed in February, however, when police attacks against nonviolent demonstrators increased. On the night of 18 February, Alabama state troopers joined local police breaking up an evening march in Marion.
Jackson died eight days later in a Selma hospital. The marchers made their way through Selma across the Edmund Pettus Bridge, where they faced a blockade of state troopers and local lawmen commanded by Clark and Major John Cloud, who ordered the marchers to disperse. When they did not, Cloud ordered his men to advance. Cheered on by white onlookers, the troopers attacked the crowd with clubs and tear gas.
Mounted police chased retreating marchers and continued to beat them. Johnson notified movement attorney Fred Gray that he intended to issue a restraining order prohibiting the march until at least 11 March, and President Johnson pressured King to call off the march until a federal court order could provide protection to the marchers.
Johnson promised to introduce a voting rights bill to Congress within a few days. That evening, several local whites attacked James Reeba white Unitarian minister who had come from Massachusetts to join the protest. His death two days later contributed to the rising national concern over the situation in Alabama. Because it is not just Negroes, but really it is all of us, who must overcome the crippling legacy of bigotry and injustice. The following day Selma demonstrators submitted a detailed march plan to Judge Johnson, who approved the demonstration and enjoined Governor Wallace and local law enforcement from harassing or threatening marchers.
On 17 March Johnson submitted voting rights legislation to Congress. The federally sanctioned march left Selma on 21 March. Protected by hundreds of federalized Alabama National Guardsmen and Federal Bureau of Investigation agents, the demonstrators covered between 7 to 17 miles per day.
And that will be a day not of the white man, not of the black man. Afterward a delegation of march leaders attempted to deliver a petition to Governor Wallace, but were rebuffed. That night, while ferrying Selma demonstrators back home from Montgomery, Viola Liuzzo, a housewife from Michigan who had come to Alabama to volunteer, was shot and killed by four members of the Ku Klux Klan.
Doar later prosecuted three Klansmen for conspiring to violate her civil rights. Johnson,bk. Carson and Shepard, Led by Martin Luther King, Jr. As many as 25, people participated in the roughly mile km march. Together, these events became a landmark in the American civil rights movement and directly led to the passage of the Voting Rights Act of The focus of those efforts was the county seat, Selma, where only about 1 or 2 percent of eligible black voters were registered.
Not only was the registration office open just two days per month, but cumbersome four-page forms and arbitrarily applied literacy tests were used to deter and prevent African Americans from obtaining the vote. Lyndon B. Johnson to push for a voting rights act. Johnson, however, remained largely noncommittal. He hoped that court enforcement of the Civil Rights Act would bring about the necessary change, he doubted that there would be sufficient congressional support for a voting rights bill, and he was hesitant to further provoke white Southerners who were already up in arms over desegregation legislation.
On February 18,in Marionthe county seat of Perry county, near Selma, a state trooper shot Jimmie Lee Jackson, a young African American man, during a nighttime demonstration. On March 6, George C.
Picturing Freedom: Selma-to-Montgomery in March, 1965
In unilaterally scheduling the action for Sunday, March 7, King alienated a number of SNCC leaders, who resented the lack of a joint decision. He then chose to allow it to take place as originally planned so as not to discourage those who had already arrived on Sunday. His intention was to join the march later. Before departing Brown Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Selma on Sunday morning, marchers were reminded of their nonviolent tactics—that if they were halted, they should sit and pray until tear gassed or arrested.
The marchers were told that they had two minutes to disperse. Williams asked to speak with the officer who had given the command. The officer responded that there was nothing to talk about, and moments later he ordered the state troopers to advance. In the tear-gas-shrouded melee that followed, marchers were spat upon, overrun by horses, and attacked with billy clubs and bullwhips.Selma to Montgomery: Retracing the march - BBC News
More than 50 marchers, including Lewiswere hospitalized. Television cameras recorded the brutal assault and brought it into millions of American homes. King called on Americans of conscience to go to Selma to join the protest and restart the march.
Thousands answered his call. Meanwhile, lawyers for the SCLC went to court in an attempt to prevent Wallace and the state from intervening again in the demonstration. While U. On March 9 King led more than 2, individuals on a march to the bridge.All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. African-American History.
When did the selma to Montgomery march start? Wiki User There were three major Selma to Montgomery marches: The first march was March 7, ; involving portestors which ended in the "Bloody Sunday" incident in which the marchers were attacked by police. The second march was on March 9, with about 2, protestors. However they did not go all the way to Montgomery as there was a court order against it in effect at that time.
On March 21,after the court order had been recinded, 8, protesters marched to Mongomery under protection of Amry and National Guard troops. March 7,March 9,and March 21 - March 25, Bloody Sunday occurred on March 7, The march was tried to be stopped every time that they were marching.
When did Selma to Montgomery marches happen? Selma to Montgomery marches happened in They marched fifty-two miles in five days. Martin Luther King Jr. What role did the violence shown on television play in the march from selma to Montgomery?
Frequently Asked Questions
Television played a huge part in the success of the march from Selma to Montgomery. This is because more people saw the march than could have ever been seen without world-wide television. This way, people knew of what was happening in Alabama. The Civil right march from Selma to Montgomery was organized to help the bullied African American get the chance to exercise their right to vote. The march was federally sanctioned with the support of President Johnson.
This situation in Alabama led to the passing of the Voting Rights Act of What are 3 facts about the Montgomery march? There were a bunch of people who attended it.
Picturing Freedom: Selma-to-Montgomery in March, 1965
They traveled from Selma to Montgomery. Asked in Martin Luther King, Jr. Did anyone die in the Selma to Montgomery March in ?
Yes,3 people died and another 16 hospitalized with injuries. President Johnson's reaction to the march from Selma to Montgomery was first to try and make the Governor abstain from further harassing the protesters, and then to a few weeks later introduce the Voting Rights Act.
Im in flvs also lmao and the answer is voting rights 4 African America hahahah. Why was there a march from Selma to Montgomery? They were part of The Voting Rights Movement. They wanted to highlight racial discrimination and get the same rights as others.All Rights Reserved.
The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. African-American History. How many selma to Montgomery marches were there?
Wiki User March 7,March 9,and March 21 - March 25, Bloody Sunday occurred on March 7, When did Selma to Montgomery marches happen? Selma to Montgomery marches happened in Why was there a march from Selma to Montgomery? They were part of The Voting Rights Movement.
They wanted to highlight racial discrimination and get the same rights as others. There were three marches in total. Asked in Alabama What happened in Selma Alabama ? It is 50 miles according to Google Maps. He is credited as having organized the March on Washington and the Selma to Montgomery marches.
There were three major Selma to Montgomery marches: The first march was March 7, ; involving portestors which ended in the "Bloody Sunday" incident in which the marchers were attacked by police. The second march was on March 9, with about 2, protestors. However they did not go all the way to Montgomery as there was a court order against it in effect at that time. On March 21,after the court order had been recinded, 8, protesters marched to Mongomery under protection of Amry and National Guard troops.
Asked in History of the United States What was the goal of the selma march? The goal of the Selma March was to allow African Americans the right to vote. There were 3 different marches with the first one taking place on March 7, Asked in Martin Luther King, Jr.
Why were Americans shocked by television footage of the march on Selma? They marched fifty-two miles in five days. Personally, I think it sounds fine! Martin Luther King Jr.